Spread operator allows an iterable to expand in places where 0+ arguments are expected. It is mostly used in variable array where there is more than 1 values are expected.It allows us the privilege to obtain a list of parameters from an array. Syntax of Spread operator is same as Rest parameter but it works completely opposite of it.

Syntax:

var variablename1 = [...value];

In the above syntax,  is spread operator which will target all values in particular variable. When … occurs in function call or alike,its called a spread operator. Spread operator can be used in many cases,like when we want to expand,copy,concat,with math object. Let’s look at each of them one by one:

Note: In order to run the code in this article make use of the console provided by the browser.

Concat()

The concat() method provided by javascript helps in concatenation of two or more strings(String concat() ) or is used to merge two or more arrays. In case of arrays,this method does not change the existing arrays but instead returns a new array.

// normal array concat() method 
let arr = [1,2,3]; 
let arr2 = [4,5]; 
  
arr = arr.concat(arr2); 
  
console.log(arr); // [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ] 

Output:

spread operator exampleWe can achieve the same output with the help of the spread operator, the code will look something like this:

// spread operator doing the concat job 
let arr = [1,2,3]; 
let arr2 = [4,5]; 
  
arr = [...arr,...arr2]; 
console.log(arr); // [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ] 

Output:

spread operatorNote: Though we can achieve the same result, but it is not recommended to use the spread in this particular case, as for a large data set it will work slower as when compared to the native concat() method.

Copy(like splice method)

In order to copy the content of array to another we can do something like this:

// copying without the spread operator 
let arr = ['a','b','c']; 
let arr2 = arr; 
  
console.log(arr2); // [ 'a', 'b', 'c' ] 

Output:

spread operator example 3The above code works fine considering the fact that we are able to copy the contents of one array to another, but under the hood it’s very different as when we mutate new array it will also affect the old array(the one which we copied). See the code below:

// changed the original array 
let arr = ['a','b','c']; 
let arr2 = arr; 
  
arr2.push('d'); 
  
console.log(arr2); 
console.log(arr); // even affected the original array(arr) 

Output:

spread operator example 4In the above code we can clearly see that when we tried to insert an element inside the array, the original array is also altered which we didn’t intended and is not recommended. We can make use of the spread operator in this case, like this:

// spread operator for copying  
let arr = ['a','b','c']; 
let arr2 = [...arr]; 
  
console.log(arr); // [ 'a', 'b', 'c' ] 
  
arr2.push('d'); //inserting an element at the end of arr2 
  
console.log(arr2); // [ 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd' ] 
console.log(arr); // [ 'a', 'b', 'c' ] 

Output:
spread operator example 5By using the spread operator we made sure that the original array is not affected whenever we alter the new array.

Expand
// normally used expand method 
let arr = ['a','b']; 
let arr2 = [arr,'c','d']; 
  
console.log(arr2); // [ [ 'a', 'b' ], 'c', 'd' ] 

Output:spread operator example 6

Even though we get the content on one array inside the other one, but actually it is array inside another array which is definitely what we didn’t want. If we want the content to be inside a single array we can make use of the spread operator.

// expand using spread operator 
  
let arr = ['a','b']; 
let arr2 = [...arr,'c','d']; 
  
console.log(arr2); // [ 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd' ] 

Output:

spread operator example 7

Math

The Math object in javascript has different properties that we can make use of to do what we want like finding the minimum from a list of numbers, finding maximum etc. Consider the case that we want to find the minimum from a list of numbers,we will write something like this:

console.log(Math.min(1,2,3,-1)); //-1  

Output:

spread operator example 8Now consider that we have an array instead of a list, this above Math object method won’t work and will return NaN, like:

// min in an array using Math.min() 
let arr = [1,2,3,-1]; 
console.log(Math.min(arr)); //NaN 

Output:

spread operator example 9When …arr is used in the function call, it “expands” an iterable object arr into the list of arguments
In order to avoid this NaN output, we make use of spread operator, like:

// with spread  
let arr = [1,2,3,-1]; 
  
console.log(Math.min(...arr)); //-1 

Output:

spread operator example 10

  • JavaScript
  • spread operator